are lists of the general tasks, or functions, and responsibilities of a position. Typically, they also include to whom the position reports, specifications such as the qualifications needed by the person in the job, salary range for the position, etc. Job descriptions are usually developed by conducting a job analysis, which includes examining the tasks and sequences of tasks necessary to perform the job. The analysis looks at the areas of knowledge and skills needed by the job. Note that a role is the set of responsibilities or expected results associated with a job. A job usually includes several roles
Possible Job Description Items
Human Resources Manager
Managing overall center process, insuring work high performance with zero mistakes and giving a detailed daily report to the general manager.
May also be called Tasks Performed; may be as lengthy as necessary to fully describe each essential duty or responsibility which comprises the employee's functions, generally starting with principal duties.
Roles and Responsibilities
Includes supervisory level, managerial requirements, and any working relationships.
The position that an Individual holds in the organization.
Job Specifications or Qualifications
may include education, experience-level, knowledge and skill sets, as well as any physical limitations (such as "able to lift 30 lbs").
Is the minimum requirements that is needed for the specific job, or position.
Insure that the information concerning a position is as descriptive as possible to pull viable candidates and provide guidance to the interviewer(s) when sifting through applicants. These guidelines may include items which do not easily fit under other categories, but play a part in the performance of the job.
Key Role Interactions
Defines the people and/or departments which the position will be require to relate with in the course of the job. Though not necessarily an exhaustive list, certainly will provide both interviewer and applicant a basis of understanding when discussing past positions and potential responsibilities.
Describes in enough detail the key ability sets and experiences which will be required from past positions to allow a new hire to function and perform the duties of the job from day one.
Defines the 'softer' skills and talents which make for a well-rounded and efficient employee, as well as effective worker, regardless of the position. These may include:
- Personal Attributes,
- General Business Skills,
- Leadership Skills.
Job specification summarizes the human characteristics needed for satisfactory job completion. It tries to describe the key qualifications someone needs to perform the job successfully. It spells out the important attributes of a person in terms of education, experience, skills, knowledge and abilities (SKAs) to perform a particular job. The job specification is a logical outgrowth of a job description. For each job description, it is desirable to have a job specification. This helps the organization to find what kind of persons is needed to take up specific jobs. The personal attributes that are described through a job specification may be classified into three categories:
Essential attributes: skills, knowledge and abilities (SKAs) a person must possess.
Desirable attributes: qualifications a person ought to posses.
Contra-indicators: attributes that will become a handicap to successful job performance.
A job specification can be developed by talking with the current jobholders about the attributes required to do the job satisfactorily. Opinions of supervisors could also be used as additional inputs. Checking the job needs of other organizations with similar jobs will also help in developing job specifications.
Job specification is useful in the selection process because it offers a clear set of qualifications for an individual to be hired for a specific job. Likewise, a well-written job specification offers a clear picture to new recruits of what they will be doing in the organization